Academic Freedom: Liberty to pursue and teach relevant knowledge and to discuss it freely without restriction from school or public officials or from other sources of influence.


Bioethical Issue: Emergent Infectious Diseases (e.g., Zika virus and Bird Flu)
and Introduced Exotic Species (e.g., Fire Ants and Rasberry Ants) .

Bird Flu (Source of pictures see bottom of page)
Link button to Crazy Raspberry Ant
Zika Virus (Source of pictures see bottom of page)

Blackboard Class Discussion

Aedes aegypti mosquito (Source: http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/12/fast-spreading-virus-may-cause-severe-birth-defects)

x Emergent Diseases

As stated elsewhere, some of the material on this page is rather old, but is still important since the problem continue. Some material is new. The idea is not that you should read it all, but read enough to get inspired to continue your search on the Internet, and actively participate in the discussions with and educated opinion.

x Bird Flu. Uploaded by hsus.


In the late 1960s and early 1970s, many scientists felt that the battle against infectious disease had been won. Consequently, the health care community turned its attention toward cancer. However, since the mid- 1970s, diseases have been returning and new diseases emerging. Several new diseases have emerged, including AIDS, Lyme disease, Ebola, Hanta, West Nile, SARS, Monkeypox, Bird Flu and Zika. We will start looking at bird flu firs, since it keeps popping up in the news year after year...

In addition, to add to the crisis, many disease-causing bacteria have become resistant to commonly used antibiotics.

"That humanity had grossly underestimated the microbes was no longer, as the world approached the twenty-first century, a matter of doubt. The microbes were winning. The debate centered not on whether Homo sapiens was increasingly challenged by microscopic competitors for domination of the planet; rather, arguments among scientists focused on the whys, hows, and whens of an acknowledged threat."

From "The Coming of the Plague: Newly emerging diseases in a world out of balance", by Laurie Garrett. Penguin Books, 1994.

To read articles open images, with your mouse, in new windows
May 28, 2006 June 01, 2006
The articles are used for educational purposes by Dr. Nilsson, South Texas College, scanned, from the instructors morning paper, The Monitor, McAllen, Texas. Mason, M. May 28, 2006: 7A, and No Author, June 01, 2006: 7A.


Readings Bird Flu / Avian Influenza

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) works together with Federal, State, and industry partners to protect the U.S. against the rapid spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza (AI)

Map of Nations With Confirmed Cases H5N1 Avian Influenza (May 19) (If a larger map of the map to the right is not available at http://pandemicflu.gov/, click here.)

Because of concerns about the potential for more widespread infection in the human population, public health authorities closely monitor outbreaks of human illness associated with avian influenza. To date, human infections with avian influenza A viruses detected since 1997 have not resulted in sustained human-to-human transmission. However, because influenza A viruses have the potential to change and gain the ability to spread easily between people, monitoring for human infection and person-to-person transmission is important.

Is bird flu a threat to Donald?

The photo is used for educational purposes by Dr. Nilsson, South Texas College, downloaded from Mirror.co.uk, The best Newspaper on the Web.

Readings Zika Virus

Link button to Zika Virus Brazil Olympics
Zika virus: Pregnant women face virus threat ahead of Brazil Olympic games

Link button to Zika Virus Americas WHO
Zika virus: Outbreak 'likely to spread across Americas' says WHO

Link button to Zika Virus Americas WHO
Zika virus is the price we pay for globalization

Link button to Zika Virus Americas WHO
Zika virus: Expert discusses its evolution and the challenges of developing effective treatments


Readings Introduced Species

Link button to Crazy Raspberry Ant
These ants do not have stingers (unlike the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta). In place of a stinger, is an acidopore, which can excrete chemicals for defense or attack. These ants, will however, bite. This behavior seems to be rare, but in some cases they will bite, causing a relatively sharp but quickly fading pain. Source URL: http://www.18669nobugs.com/rasberry_ants

Copyright © 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2019, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, Jan A. Nilsson. Page created 23.V.2006, last updated 26.I.2016, most likely during the wee hours of the morning on a G3 PowerBook owned by Jan A. Nilsson. Web page layout and design © and intellectual property Jan A. Nilsson. Content on Dr. Nilsson's CyberOffice may not be used for commercial purposes. All rights reserved. Except for educational purposes and 'fair use' (see below), reproduction of the whole or any part of the contents without written permission is prohibited. If used for educational purposes and 'fair use', including photographs, source must be given. (Some clip art, texts and backgrounds used on Dr. Nilsson's CyberOffice downloaded for educational purposes and/or 'fair use' from Internet free domain has no source.)

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If anyone feels that his or her material cannot be used this way I will immediately remove it if notified.

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Copyright Notice statement by Asian Development bank for Avian Flu picture: All materials that appear on ADB's official web site, adb.org, are its exclusive property unless otherwise indicated. ADB encourages users to print, download, or copy information, documents and materials from the web site exclusively for personal and non-commercial use. The bird flu "death" cartoon was scanned from the Monitor, McAllen, Texas. The Zika virus pictures: 1. https://cdn0.vox-cdn.com/thumbor/J8tBC1FoQvj4qVw6XjsTFqxEh6o=/cdn0.vox-cdn.com/uploads/chorus_asset/file/5918863/Zika_virus3.0.jpg 2. http://www.globalresearch.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/ZIKA-CLOSE-UP.jpg 3. http://images.hngn.com/data/images/full/186598/children-born-with-microcephaly.jpg?w=650